Commit 50b25663 authored by Klara Skinner's avatar Klara Skinner
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Louise's fixes and revert select proofing correx

parent 2bdd2b8f
......@@ -7,6 +7,6 @@ style: chapter
Philosophically and practically, we default to Open. We subscribe to the Open Definition – where data or content is regarded as open if anyone is free to use, reuse and redistribute it, or combine it with different materials.
This inspires us to be open to collaboration and contributions from outside our immediate group, inviting many to reuse our processes and make them better. Combining openly licenced intellectual property with open practices enables and encourages others to experiment in their own environments – to localise, contextualise, translate, adapt and spread the tools and methodologies we develop well beyond our own reach or imagination.
This inspires us to be open to collaboration and contributions from outside our immediate group, inviting many to reuse our processes and make them better. Combining openly licensed intellectual property with open practices enables and encourages others to experiment in their own environments – to localise, contextualise, translate, adapt and spread the tools and methodologies we develop well beyond our own reach or imagination.
We understand that neither does every piece of content in the world have to be openly licenced, nor does every process have to be collaborative. But we choose to stand closest to extreme openness. We serve as a counterbalance to the prevailing default of “completely closed”, and push for and establish new norms. We also exist as an example of the power of openness in the philanthropic world.
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We understand that neither does every piece of content in the world have to be openly licensed, nor does every process have to be collaborative. But we choose to stand closest to extreme openness. We serve as a counterbalance to the prevailing default of “completely closed”, and push for and establish new norms. We also exist as an example of the power of openness in the philanthropic world.
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......@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ What happens if you apply this approach to areas outside of software? The result
In the early days of the Foundation, Rufus Pollock initiated an open source project called Annotator, largely motivated by a desire to mark up Shakespeare on [http://openshakespeare.org](http://openshakespeare.org). Two other fellows, Dan Whaley and Seamus Kraft, picked up Annotator and moved it forward in their own projects – Dan using it as the backbone for Hypothes.is, a decentralised annotation platform, and Seamus bringing it into the realm of government and policy creation. The project evolved and rippled through the fellowship into the world; each time in a different context.
Sean Bonner’s work on aggregating radioactivity data with Safecast highlights another benefit of Open. A volunteer-created information sheet about the bGeigie Nano Geiger Counter has been completely translated into more than 20 languages – an initiative driven entirely by the community, without any direction from Safecast. A top-down approach to that same effort would have been considerably more time-consuming and infinitely more expensive.
Sean Bonner’s work on aggregating radioactivity data with Safecast highlights another benefit of Open. A volunteer-created information sheet about the bGeigie Nano Geiger counter has been completely translated into more than 20 languages – an initiative driven entirely by the community, without any direction from Safecast. A top-down approach to that same effort would have been considerably more time-consuming and infinitely more expensive.
{:.loosen-15}
Adam Hyde’s Coko project is replacing proprietary scholarly infrastructure with open source software. Within one short year, the community has built nine separate publishing platforms, ranging from journal submission systems and micropublications to content aggregation platforms. While the Coko core team built two platforms, the other seven came into existence because of the sharing of this common infrastructure. This is proof of Open as a powerful multiplier of effort in the fight to improve academic publishing systems and processes.
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......@@ -20,4 +20,4 @@ True fellowship only works with community. At times it’s difficult to see the
One of the early learnings was that new fellows were overwhelmed when they first joined the fellowship. Trust takes time, but there’s nothing wrong with helping it along.
The idea of a “buddy” was introduced, and new fellows were paired with current fellows in an effort to build relationships and allow a safe space for questions. Success varied because of time zones, chemistry, and other factors. In time, the buddy system evolved, and Jesse von Doom, who became a fellow in 2014 with his project CASH Music, which provided open tools and infrastructure for musicians, now serves as buddy to all new fellows. He meets with each new fellow to learn about who they are, let them know that “yes, this really is what it seems”, gives them crucial tips and connects them to other fellows. By the time a new fellow attends the Gathering, they easily slip into the community and feel at home.
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The idea of a “buddy” was introduced, and new fellows were paired with current fellows in an effort to build relationships and allow a safe space for questions. Success varied because of time zones, chemistry, and other factors. In time, the buddy system evolved, and Jesse von Doom, who became a fellow in 2014 with his project CASH Music, which provided open tools and infrastructure for musicians, now serves as buddy to all new fellows. He meets with each new fellow to learn about who they are, let them know that “yes, this really is what it seems”, gives them crucial tips and connects them to other fellows. By the time a new fellow attends a Gathering, they easily slip into the community and feel at home.
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......@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ style: chapter
## **09** Community means co-ownership
Socialising has been cemented into the culture of the Gathering. One of the most significant moments in this process happened in Toronto when Sean Bonner, whose fellowship revolved around the environmental monitoring and open data project Safecast, introduced a game called “Werewolf” after dinner one night. This subsequently grew into a ritual played out at every Gathering.
Socialising has been cemented into the culture of the Gatherings. One of the most significant moments in this process happened in Toronto when Sean Bonner, whose fellowship revolved around the environmental monitoring and open data project Safecast, introduced a game called “Werewolf” after dinner one night. This subsequently grew into a ritual played out at every Gathering.
Werewolf is a simple game. A moderator secretly assigns roles to people sitting in a circle; one card and you’re a villager, another and you’re a werewolf. Over rounds of negotiation, discussion, and outright lying, the villagers try to discover the werewolves, and the werewolves try to eat the villagers.
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......@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ It’s no surprise that the fellowship has been fondly described as a “collect
All fellows find the community overwhelming at first, but it’s part of the process – and completely expected. It takes time to build confidence in the group before a new member of the cohort can feel comfortable and truly let go. But once those bonds are in place, the environment of trust makes sharing common experiences easier.
At the recent Gathering, a new fellow described a tricky and potentially volatile situation in their community: a significant clash of personalities with a volunteer. Removing that single toxic personality was the easy choice, but it wasn’t an option. Long-term personal relationships between the volunteer and other highly valued members of the community meant that if one was removed, the rest might follow. There was no simple resolution, but just having a safe place to talk about the issue led to others discussing similar situations. It was incredibly helpful to the fellow and, of course, to others.
At a recent Gathering, a new fellow described a tricky and potentially volatile situation in their community: a significant clash of personalities with a volunteer. Removing that single toxic personality was the easy choice, but it wasn’t an option. Long-term personal relationships between the volunteer and other highly valued members of the community meant that if one was removed, the rest might follow. There was no simple resolution, but just having a safe place to talk about the issue led to others discussing similar situations. It was incredibly helpful to the fellow and, of course, to others.
But the fellowship isn’t just for help. It’s a testing ground for new ideas, and these will all get a thorough grilling – and with everyone’s best intentions at heart. Eventually, fellows feel enabled to try things they never would have dreamt of attempting before.
......@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ While creating CrowdVoice, a platform that harnessed the power of crowdsourced m
“I have a sense of belonging,” she says. “It sounds clichéd, but to do this in Bahrain is very isolating. To do this anywhere else, I would not have that support network. A lot of the foundations we work with exist to commit something to their investment committee. You have a programme officer to respond to, auditors to respond to, financial reports to submit. Nobody asks, ‘How are you?’ That’s something the fellowship provides. The group cares about you as an individual.
“When my fellowship ended, I thought at first it was going to be another one of those experiences I would just move on from. But I continued getting invites to the in-person Gathering, and the community keeps coming back to get energised and renew a lot of the friendships. We may not agree on every single thing, and there are definitely controversies involved, but as a whole, this group of fellows and team genuinely cares, and that’s what makes the fellowship so meaningful.
“When my fellowship ended, I thought at first it was going to be another one of those experiences I would just move on from. But I continued getting invites to the in-person Gatherings, and the community keeps coming back to get energised and renew a lot of the friendships. We may not agree on every single thing, and there are definitely controversies involved, but as a whole, this group of fellows and team genuinely cares, and that’s what makes the fellowship so meaningful.
“Apart from the technicalities, you immediately understand why people are fellows. It’s not just because what they do is open software or hardware, or open this or open that. It’s because they come with an open mind and want to solve what they perceive as a grave injustice – it’s a group of people struggling for real progress, accessibility, social justice. I think that’s a recent transformation of what the Shuttleworth Foundation means.”
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......@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ The format also failed. Each session started with a presentation, introducing a
While every component of this Gathering was designed with positive community and camaraderie in mind, it was clear that this format no longer served those objectives. The programme and people were suffering because of it. Small changes were made immediately, but it took 18 months to develop a new format that fostered the desired environment.
### Get your gunner
### Get your Gunner
Trusted expert in collaborative events Allen Gunn – Gunner as he’s more widely known – was brought in to help. A long time collaborator, he advocated the need to shift the focus in participatory events from organisers and panellists to participants. Along with some tools and tips, he helped redesign the event from scratch.
......@@ -43,15 +43,15 @@ In Malta, October 2014, the group was introduced to this new format.
The change surpassed all expectations. It established the purpose of the Gathering as more important than any specific practice or outcome, and that the format could – and should – evolve. The focus was on learning, and the community became a resource for all to share.
The Gathering would no longer be about having all the answers. By moving towards participation and collaboration, the sessions placed fellows in a landscape that allowed them to get lost.
Gatherings would no longer be about having all the answers. By moving towards participation and collaboration, the sessions placed fellows in a landscape that allowed them to get lost.
Participants were immediately more engaged, not only in sessions but also outside of the formal programme. A space grew for human connection within the context of a specific problem set, naturally leading to further conversation and moving easily between the specifics of a domain to a higher order of challenge. It changed from “how am I solving this?” to “how are we solving this?” and, over time, to “how do we solve this together?”
{% include feature-image
images='esraa.jpg'
reference='Esra’a Al Shafei quote'
caption='“Many fellowships end when [funding] ends – that’s it. You don’t go to meetings and you aren’t invited – you become part of the mailing list and it ends there. I’m not obliged to go to the Gathering, but it’s where I get energy and inspiration, and I solidify my commitment to Open. I still feel part of this.”'
description='“Many fellowships end when [funding] ends – that’s it. You don’t go to meetings and you aren’t invited – you become part of the mailing list and it ends there. I’m not obliged to go to the Gathering, but it’s where I get energy and inspiration, and I solidify my commitment to Open. I still feel part of this.”'
caption='“Many fellowships end when [funding] ends – that’s it. You don’t go to meetings and you aren’t invited – you become part of the mailing list and it ends there. I’m not obliged to go to the Gatherings, but it’s where I get energy and inspiration, and I solidify my commitment to Open. I still feel part of this.”'
description='“Many fellowships end when [funding] ends – that’s it. You don’t go to meetings and you aren’t invited – you become part of the mailing list and it ends there. I’m not obliged to go to the Gatherings, but it’s where I get energy and inspiration, and I solidify my commitment to Open. I still feel part of this.”'
source='Esra’a Al Shafei (2012–2015)'
text-position='bottom right'
text-color='white'
......
......@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ style: chapter
Funded fellowships last from one to three years, but when the funding runs dry, fellows aren’t “out”.
It stands to reason that lifelong change-makers who find a home and place with likeminded others tend to value those relationships and maintain them. It’s also true that the longer fellows are around, the better others come to know them and their work; thus conversations and relationships become deeper and stronger. The shared experiences and trust fellows have built, the collaborations established, the advisors gained and the friendships made are rare, lasting and important. Fellows that come to the Gathering or participate in communication channels bring news from their journeys, new learnings and new questions. The current fellows learn from this wisdom and benefit from experiences accumulated far beyond the fellowship. Returning fellows also learn from the new people and ideas that have entered the community since their fellowships ended.
It stands to reason that lifelong change-makers who find a home and place with likeminded others tend to value those relationships and maintain them. It’s also true that the longer fellows are around, the better others come to know them and their work; thus conversations and relationships become deeper and stronger. The shared experiences and trust fellows have built, the collaborations established, the advisors gained and the friendships made are rare, lasting and important. Fellows that come to the Gatherings or participate in communication channels bring news from their journeys, new learnings and new questions. The current fellows learn from this wisdom and benefit from experiences accumulated far beyond the fellowship. Returning fellows also learn from the new people and ideas that have entered the community since their fellowships ended.
At the 2017 Vancouver Gathering, Gavin Weale, a fellow who works in a number of African countries training young people to produce magazines and digital marketing, came back with an incredibly honest and vulnerable war story about [how not to scale](50-07-appendix-scale-sustainably.html#vi-thou-shalt-scale-sustainably){:.show-page-number}. The whole room was rapt. Everyone recognised the quandary and had felt the same pressure from funders to hit a number rather than achieve meaningful impact.
......@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ In response, the group pooled experiences and ideas to crowdsource “The Ten Co
> “Thou shalt have stretchy pants.” Keep in mind worst- and best-case scenarios, and how you will manage the changing cashflow inherent in funder-based growth, and make sure you can scale up and down in an agile way (like stretchy pants do).
Openness, trust and respect are the bedrock of every long-lasting relationship, but this social glue is not always enough. It’s a challenge for individuals from disparate fields and time zones to stay in touch, either as friends or as a network: personal and work commitments must come first. The Foundation’s responsibility is to make sure connectedness can happen. Aside from the Gathering and communications channels, there are several ideas we use to help nurture a continuing sense of community between fellowship and fellow. Here are a few examples:
Openness, trust and respect are the bedrock of every long-lasting relationship, but this social glue is not always enough. It’s a challenge for individuals from disparate fields and time zones to stay in touch, either as friends or as a network: personal and work commitments must come first. The Foundation’s responsibility is to make sure connectedness can happen. Aside from the Gatherings and communications channels, there are several ideas we use to help nurture a continuing sense of community between fellowship and fellow. Here are a few examples:
### Boards
......@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Good boards provide strategic direction, support the organisation’s leaders an
Fellows also support each other. Esra’a Al Shafei transitioned from current fellow in September 2015, just as Astra Taylor joined. Esra’a got to know Astra and discovered their shared vision and values. Astra now serves on Esra’a’s board.
### Flash grants
### Flash Grants
Expanding community thinking beyond the fellows is an overt goal of building the fellowship over time. The fellows’ communities benefit from ambient sharing, and fellows are also empowered to fund others they believe in through a programme called Flash Grants.
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......@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ Steve enjoyed considerable success with his M4Lit platform, delivering short, co
### 08. Mark Horner 2007–2012
Mark became Fellow for Open and Collaborative Resources in 2007. After our transition into the new fellowship model in 2009, he took ownership of the Siyavula project, and it became a for-profit social enterprise in 2011. To date, Siyavula has put 10 million openly licenced and free textbooks on school desks in Africa and has pioneered machine learning technology to offer affordable maths and science practice services on any device.
Mark became Fellow for Open and Collaborative Resources in 2007. After our transition into the new fellowship model in 2009, he took ownership of the Siyavula project, and it became a for-profit social enterprise in 2011. To date, Siyavula has put 10 million openly licensed and free textbooks on school desks in Africa and has pioneered machine learning technology to offer affordable maths and science practice services on any device.
### 09. Philipp Schmidt 2009–2012
......@@ -64,8 +64,8 @@ As the second fellow in our first intake of the new international model, Rufus s
{% include feature-image
images='gavin.jpg'
reference='Gavin Weale quote'
caption='“There is no other funding community that I have stayed in touch with – by any comparison. The Gathering is such an important space to refresh myself professionally.”'
description='“There is no other funding community that I have stayed in touch with – by any comparison. The Gathering is such an important space to refresh myself professionally.”'
caption='“There is no other funding community that I have stayed in touch with – by any comparison. The Gatherings are such an important space to refresh myself professionally.”'
description='“There is no other funding community that I have stayed in touch with – by any comparison. The Gatherings are such an important space to refresh myself professionally.”'
source='Gavin Weale (2011–2014)'
text-position='bottom left'
text-color='white'
......@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ David became a fellow to work on Lumen Learning, a for-profit social enterprise
### 23. Jonas Öberg 2013–2015
Jonas developed the Elog.io project and built technical infrastructure to provide instant credit and attribution to creators of openly licenced digital works. While his project did not prove sustainable as a business model, it is still an ongoing endeavour, with its image recognition and similarity matching databases still in use today. Jonas went on to an executive position at the Free Software Foundation Europe after his fellowship and recently joined Scania AB to build support structures for managing the company’s internal open source program.
Jonas developed the Elog.io project and built technical infrastructure to provide instant credit and attribution to creators of openly licensed digital works. While his project did not prove sustainable as a business model, it is still an ongoing endeavour, with its image recognition and similarity matching databases still in use today. Jonas went on to an executive position at the Free Software Foundation Europe after his fellowship and recently joined Scania AB to build support structures for managing the company’s internal open source program.
### 24. Daniel Lombraña González 2013–2016
......@@ -130,8 +130,8 @@ As individuals we should all be able to share our thoughts and feelings, actions
{% include feature-image
images='pmr.jpg'
reference='Peter Murray-Rust quote'
caption='“The fellowship has totally changed my life – and it’s still one of the biggest things in my life. It’s my heartbeat, a guiding light, and gives me an environment that fuels me, and I can pay back into. The Gathering is so important to do this.”'
description='“The fellowship has totally changed my life – and it’s still one of the biggest things in my life. It’s my heartbeat, a guiding light, and gives me an environment that fuels me, and I can pay back into. The Gathering is so important to do this.”'
caption='“The fellowship has totally changed my life – and it’s still one of the biggest things in my life. It’s my heartbeat, a guiding light, and gives me an environment that fuels me, and I can pay back into. The Gatherings are so important to do this.”'
description='“The fellowship has totally changed my life – and it’s still one of the biggest things in my life. It’s my heartbeat, a guiding light, and gives me an environment that fuels me, and I can pay back into. The Gatherings are so important to do this.”'
source='Peter Murray-Rust (2014–2016)'
text-position='bottom right'
text-color='white'
......
......@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ The agreement letter is what fellows receive just after we let them know they ha
>
> As a Shuttleworth Fellow, you will be creating intellectual property by writing, gathering data, contributing to designs and so on. The intellectual property you create will belong to you (or your organisation if you so choose) to ensure you have the power to continue to use, share and evolve it. To help you get your ideas out into the world, and realise the potential value of openness, you will release everything as an open resource. Resources are open when they are available for revision, translation, improvement and sharing, under open licences, open standards and in open formats, free from technical protection measures.
>
> We understand that there are a number of legitimate reasons why certain resources may not be made open. We will consider instances of privacy, confidentiality, security and utility, which may preclude certain documents or information from being licenced in this way, but our default is always open.
> We understand that there are a number of legitimate reasons why certain resources may not be made open. We will consider instances of privacy, confidentiality, security and utility, which may preclude certain documents or information from being licensed in this way, but our default is always open.
>
> *Grant*
> You will receive a grant, in four equal instalments, to devote your time and energy to your fellowship. You will be responsible for managing your own time and efforts, and complying with the relevant tax laws in your jurisdiction.
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......@@ -18,15 +18,15 @@ If you are a fellow, then the Open Requirements apply to knowledge resources tha
### Open content and data
You must make knowledge resources open as defined in the [Open Definition](http://opendefinition.org/){:.show-url} “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” You must share [data](http://opendefinition.org/licences/#Data){:.show-url} under Creative Commons 0 or another licence or dedication that complies with the [Open Definition](http://opendefinition.org/). You must share knowledge resources using a format that is platform independent, machine readable, editable and available to the public without restrictions that would impede the re-use of the information.
You must make knowledge resources open as defined in the [Open Definition](http://opendefinition.org/){:.show-url} “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” You must share [data](http://opendefinition.org/licenses/#Data){:.show-url} under Creative Commons 0 or another licence or dedication that complies with the [Open Definition](http://opendefinition.org/). You must share knowledge resources using a format that is platform independent, machine readable, editable and available to the public without restrictions that would impede the re-use of the information.
### Free and open source software
You must distribute software under the [General Public License 3.0](http://www.gnu.org/licences/gpl){:.show-url} or another licence listed by the Open Source Initiative as complying with the [Open Source Definition](http://opensource.org/osd){:.show-url} but you must licence software that functions primarily as network server software under the [GNU Affero General Public License](www.gnu.org/licences/agpl.html){:.show-url}.
You must distribute software under the [General Public Licence 3.0](http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl){:.show-url} or another licence listed by the Open Source Initiative as complying with the [Open Source Definition](http://opensource.org/osd){:.show-url} but you must license software that functions primarily as network server software under the [GNU Affero General Public Licence](www.gnu.org/licenses/agpl.html){:.show-url}.
### Open hardware
You must licence all hardware under a licence or licences that comply with the [Open Source Hardware Definition](http://www.oshwa.org/definition/){:.show-url}. If semiconductor chip products or mask rights apply to anything you create during the fellowship year or pay for as fellow, you must give an irrevocable non-exclusive royalty free licence or licences under those rights that permits and enables anyone to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import or distribute products conditional only upon attribution and share-alike requirements.
You must license all hardware under a licence or licences that comply with the [Open Source Hardware Definition](http://www.oshwa.org/definition/){:.show-url}. If semiconductor chip products or mask rights apply to anything you create during the fellowship year or pay for as a fellow, you must give an irrevocable non-exclusive royalty free licence or licences under those rights that permits and enables anyone to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import or distribute products conditional only upon attribution and share-alike requirements.
### Other licences
......@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ You can share data and knowledge resources subject to intellectual property unde
### Patents and registered designs
You are free to ask the oundation to agree that you obtain a patent, utility patent, registered designs, plant breeder’s right or similar registered right over any knowledge resource or intellectual property under the Open Requirements, but you must not do so without written agreement. If you do so without written agreement, then the Foundation can require you to transfer the registered right to the Foundation.
You are free to ask the Foundation to agree that you obtain a patent, utility patent, registered designs, plant breeder’s right or similar registered right over any knowledge resource or intellectual property under the Open Requirements, but you must not do so without written agreement. If you do so without written agreement, then the Foundation can require you to transfer the registered right to the Foundation.
### Ownership
......@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ When you as fellow pay someone else to create anything under intellectual proper
In the Open Requirements, "intellectual property" means patents, rights to inventions, registered designs, semiconductor-product and mask rights, design rights, know-how, trade secrets, trade marks, Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), all rights of copyright, neighbouring rights, database rights and all rights having equivalent or similar effect anywhere in the world.
To ensure that others can carry on the work you have started, the Foundation has as a perpetual, universal, royalty free licence to all intellectual property under the Open Requirements that entitles the Foundation to distribute the intellectual property on any terms it deems fit, including under one ore more public licences or to grant non-exclusive, all-rights-reserved licences to others, including through multiple tiers of sub-licences, without any further obligation to you.
To ensure that others can carry on the work you have started, the Foundation has as a perpetual, universal, royalty free licence to all intellectual property under the Open Requirements that entitles the Foundation to distribute the intellectual property on any terms it deems fit, including under one or more public licences or to grant non-exclusive, all-rights-reserved licences to others, including through multiple tiers of sub-licences, without any further obligation to you.
### Stewardship
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......@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ title: "Open locks"
## **iv** Open Locks
Open Locks is a very specific legal mechanism to make sure that initial commitments to keep various things in the open remain so. Below, we discuss how the Shuttleworth Foundation has been using Open Locks, and we give specific examples that may be useful to others.
Open Locks are a very specific legal mechanism to make sure that initial commitments to keep various things in the open remain so. Below, we discuss how the Shuttleworth Foundation has been using Open Locks, and we give specific examples that may be useful to others.
### Open Locks: legal commitments that lock in trust
......@@ -15,27 +15,27 @@ The history of open knowledge resource organisations – from open software thro
Such experience goes against what many founders start out trying to achieve. They fund something to be open, only to turn around after the acquittals have been sent to find the project has now sold its intellectual property to someone else.
This raises an important question: how do we ensure that the founder’s commitment to openness and society endures when circumstances change? The Shuttleworth Foundation solution is Open Locks.
This raises an important question: how do we ensure that the founder’s commitment to openness and society endures when circumstances change? The Shuttleworth Foundation solution is the Open Lock.
The Open Locks is a binding legal commitment with explicit wording inserted or added into the foundational documents of a social enterprise, non-profit or for-profit. It is an important innovation for the Foundation – and the wider open world – and is an entrenched provision in the governing documents of a company that requires open licencing.
The Open Lock is a binding legal commitment with explicit wording inserted or added into the foundational documents of a social enterprise, non-profit or for-profit. It is an important innovation for the Foundation – and the wider open world – and is an entrenched provision in the governing documents of a company that requires open licensing.
The impact of the Open Locks is simple but incredibly effective: it means no one who acts for a company has the legal authority to lock down knowledge. It acts as a last line of defence against the threat of proprietary interests now and in the future, and ensures the original commitment to social change remains in place, regardless of what decisions or circumstances occur with the founder.
The impact of the Open Lock is simple but incredibly effective: it means no one who acts for a company has the legal authority to lock down knowledge. It acts as a last line of defence against the threat of proprietary interests now and in the future, and ensures the original commitment to social change remains in place, regardless of what decisions or circumstances occur with the founder.
Open Locks can be used in a multitude of different ways. It might be used to ensure an organisation cannot apply for patents, or it could be used to prevent volunteer data being sold off to the higher bidder.
An Open Lock can be used in a multitude of different ways. It might be used to ensure an organisation cannot apply for patents, or it could be used to prevent volunteer data being sold off to the higher bidder.
Open Locks is a binding commitment in the foundational documents of an enterprise to share knowledge under open licences. Sometimes it includes a commitment not to close knowledge in a certain way. For example, Open Locks could state that an enterprise will not apply for software patents.
For-profit enterprises and many non-profits are incorporated: that is, they are legal entities recognised under law, and defined by their foundational documentation. Open Locks can be written into those foundational documents when the organisation becomes incorporated, or existing companies can add them by amending their foundational documents. An organisation that is not incorporated can include Open Locks in a constitution.
For-profit enterprises and many non-profits are incorporated: that is, they are legal entities recognised under law, and defined by their foundational documentation. Open Locks can be written into those foundational documents when the organisation becomes incorporated, or existing companies can add them by amending their foundational documents. An organisation that is not incorporated can include an Open Lock in a constitution.
The legal effect of Open Locks is that no-one who acts for a company has the legal authority to lock knowledge down.
The legal effect of an Open Lock is that no-one who acts for a company has the legal authority to lock knowledge down.
As with similar provisions, Open Locks can usually be changed, but change can only happen through a special procedure. For instance, changing Open Locks usually requires the agreement of an external guarantor, who may only hold a few shares but can veto any change to the Open Lock. The guarantor is often referred to as holding a golden share. The difficulty of changing Open Locks means that it can’t be done quickly or easily or surreptitiously. Instead, there is time for social processes to play out, for contributors to withdraw their work, for someone to fork the project, and for those who’ve helped build it to be heard.
As with similar provisions, an Open Lock can usually be changed, but change can only happen through a special procedure. For instance, changing Open Locks usually requires the agreement of an external guarantor, who may only hold a few shares but can veto any change to an Open Lock. The guarantor is often referred to as holding a golden share. The difficulty of changing an Open Lock means that it can’t be done quickly or easily or surreptitiously. Instead, there is time for social processes to play out, for contributors to withdraw their work, for someone to fork the project, and for those who’ve helped build it to be heard.
At the Foundation we created Open Locks to add to our toolkit because we needed them to help our fellows build new enterprises on a foundation of openness. For instance, Content Mine is a scientific data-mining non-profit that uses Open Locks to guarantee that its data and software will remain open. And Siyavula is a textbook publisher committed to licensing all volunteer contributions under a Creative Commons Attribution licence.
At the Foundation we created Open Locks to add to our toolkit because we needed them to help our fellows build new enterprises on a foundation of openness. For instance, Content Mine is a scientific data-mining non-profit that uses an Open Lock to guarantee that its data and software will remain open. And Siyavula is a textbook publisher committed to licensing all volunteer contributions under a Creative Commons Attribution licence.
While our Open Locks has already helped to protect commitments to open knowledge, we’ve only been using them for a few years. They are an experiment that will only be truly tested over the long term. There is much to learn. We are looking forward to seeing how other social enterprises do better than we have done, and extend the experiment in ways that we haven’t thought about.
While our Open Locks have already helped to protect commitments to open knowledge, we’ve only been using them for a few years. They are an experiment that will only be truly tested over the long term. There is much to learn. We are looking forward to seeing how other social enterprises do better than we have done, and extend the experiment in ways that we haven’t thought about.
Exactly how Open Locks is implemented depends on applicable company law, what the company does, and the likely threats to its mission. As a starting point, we’ve developed example clauses that we and others can use, adapt and improve.
Exactly how an Open Lock is implemented depends on applicable company law, what the company does, and the likely threats to its mission. As a starting point, we’ve developed example clauses that we and others can use, adapt and improve.
We use this model legal language as Open Locks in agreements and foundational documents. Our latest language is in our [GitHub repository](https://github.com/ShuttleworthFoundation){:.show-url}.
We use this model legal language as an Open Lock in agreements and foundational documents. Our latest language is in our [GitHub repository](https://github.com/ShuttleworthFoundation){:.show-url}.
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